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Absolute Humidity

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Absolute humidity is the density of water vapor in the air (kg/m3)

To calculate absolute humidity, we first use the dewpoint temperature and the formula following formula; E=6.11*10.0**(7.5*Tdc/(237.7+Tdc)) to calculate vapor pressure in millibars.

Then we convert the vapor pressure in millibars to Pa by multiplying by 100.

Once this is done, we get the vapor pressure in Pa, we can use the gas law to calculate water vapor density (i.e. absolute humidity) by substituting Rw in place of R and by using the vapor pressure in the gas law formula, rather than the total atmospheric pressure that we would use to calculate air density.

Gas law;



P= pressure in Pascals (Pa)


T=temperature in degrees Kelvin

R=gas constant for air=287 (J/kg*Kelvin)

Rw=gas constant for water vapor= 461.5 (J/kg*Kelvin)


Rearranging, the density m/V = P*M/(T*R). The absolute humidity is just the density of water vapor,
where M = 18.02 g/mol, and R = 8.314472 Pa·m³/(mol·K), and T is temperature in kelvins

The absolute humidity is just the density of water vapor,
ea*M/ (T*R)

Density M/V = M/ (T*R). Where M = 0.0015 g/mol, and R = 8.314472 Pa·m³/ (mol·K), and T is temperature in Kelvin =35 +273O c =308k

= 0.0015gmol-1/ (308 K X 8.314472 Pa·m³/ (mol·K)

= 0.0015g/2560.8573 m-3

= 5.8574 x 10 -7 gm-3


Prisoners with Special Needs


Prisoners have special diverse needs that allow the recognition of some specific populations. The correctional authorities are aware of such needs. The department needs to be aware of and handle appropriately besides providing the normal correctional measures. Special Needs Offender Offenders are comprised of offenders whose characteristics are unique and therefore stand out from the rest of the prisoners. Some several of such needs but a good example are mental illness, substance abuse and HIV. Since all prisons have the same program, inmate transfer takes place in order to get their needs met.  The main aim of this coursework is to explain the needs of special offenders.

1. How special needs, mentally ill, and substance-abusing prisoners affect the jail and prison systems at state and federal levels?

Prisons receive funding from the state or federal agencies and therefore have to cater for the needs of the Special needs offenders which may not be done by the governing bodies of a majority of local jails. The United States compelled the federal government to build state mental hospital arguing that the prisoners were a special case and needed to be under medication and not be punished in prison. The California State Senate was forced to intervene in 1973 to find a solution for the problem of accumulating individuals who were mentally ill in prisons and jails. The state and the federal government are on the spot of failing to setup a mental-health facility for the mentally ill individuals who have been deinstitutionalized hence are soon arrested and put in jail or prison which then becomes congested (Ammerman et al, 1999).

2. What would happen if these prisoners were not cared for properly?

Special Needs Offenders can easily be best cared for if admitted in hospitals than left unmonitored since they will be easily inappropriately detained in prison. The special needs prisoners with a need for treatment and care. Some have attempted suicide as a result of poor care. For instance, if the psychiatrists will not ensure that seriously mentally ill individuals don’t enter the criminal Justice system, they will end up into prison since when they fall out of the psychiatric care they easily break the law hence risk being in prison. The early the diversion of the individual from the criminal justice system, the easier it is to protect him or her from an unnecessary imprisonment. The individually may also fall victims of physical and sexual harassment. The prisons and jails  are no longer in a position of providing treatment for mental illness hence keeping the affected people there is a risk to public safety and an economically expensive intervention of fighting crime (Ammerman et al, 1999).


3. Select a prison special offender population and research a program aimed to assist or care for that population.

Substance abuse affects individuals have a two in one problem. They need to satisfy their strong urge for the substance they abuse at the same time they have a problem with sanitation. One of the most effective programs for substance abuse is the therapeutic communities. However, for the program to work effectively, the there must be a competent staff, the correctional authorities must throw in their support, resources should be available, the aim of the therapy should be to lessen other harms that may be beyond the abuse of the drugs and care must be continued after the paroling of the inmates (Ammerman et al, 1999).


4. What are the characteristics of the program?

The program involves to efforts to successively rehabilitate the participants because it involves separation of the participants from other prisoners. The participants are secluded to reduce the influence by other non-participant drug users or suppliers and other forms of violence associated with drug use. It is based on personal responsibility of sticking to the program guidelines and their nurture of the abilities to confront their substance abuse habits The program also incorporates drug education such as alcohol education, counseling, HIV education, vocational training, psychological rehabilitation and life-skills training (Ammerman et al, 1999).


5. How has the program affected the special offender population in that prison?

The results indicated a reduction in relapse, recidivism rates and re-arrest than the control population. It was shown that those who dropped out of the program had higher re-arrest rates and relapse than those who managed to complete the program. The participants are mainly assisted to avert the deep rooted negative patterns of their thinking culture as well as their strong desires that that prompt them to the abuse of drugs. Therapeutic communities were found to be the most effective of all the programs used in substance abuse.


Indeed the Prisoners with Special Needs in the USA have a big problem although the correction authorities and medical departments have their share of the problem. Some of these population include those with mentally ill, drug abuse and HIV individuals. There are a number of movements that have volunteered to push for the provision of the needs. A number of programs have been suggested but therapeutic communities have been effective.






Ammerman, R., Ott, P. J., & Tarter, R. E. (1999). Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Hoboken: Taylor & Francis.

Punishment Essay


Punishment is thought to be something that is painful and it essentially consists of several elements. It must be due to an offense by an offender, must be inflicted by an authority and usually entail unpleasantness towards the victim. Punishment for crime in the United States was first believed to be based on the principle of vengeance in the Old Testament. During the colonial times they actually assumed that punishment was actually a system of fetching a sinner back to the correct relationship with God. The American traditional way of corporal punishment was later abandoned in the entire systems of the prisons in the twentieth century due to the introduction of punishment that was purely based on the medical model.

Recently, there has been a raise in the number of Americans who are under correctional supervision, in jail and prison. Scholars reveal that corrections in American have been growing both in times of poor and good economic situations and also in times of rising crimes (Clear, Cole & Dean, 2013). It will be realized that principled and effective punishment for those criminals that are convicted in fact entails the use and development of various punishments between probation and imprisonment. It is also good to note that the prison discipline in United States should truly be fair and accountable. Rules and regulations that govern the prisons should be plainly regularly applied and spelt out.

It is generally believed that the federal and state objectives of punishment in America are basically the penalties or the consequences that accrue from the committed crimes. It is widely accepted that punishment is entirely meant to make sure that the offender is sufficiently chastised for the offences committed. Punishment is essentially destined to stop the offender from committing more offenses. In most cases the punishment attached to the offenders is usually severe which in turn discourages him or her from reoffending. Punishment also guards the society from dishonest and dangerous people. This is attained by keeping these people out of the streets where they are sent to jails or prisons where they decide whether they can change for an improved life. The goal here is to promote the option of rehabilitation towards the offender which is in fact believed to assist in condemning the offender’s conduct.

Punishment further makes sure that people clearly recognize the laws that need to be complied, and discourages the rest from doing similar crimes (Banks, 2005).  Punishment is geared at ensuring that the offender understands the damages associated with the crimes committed and further understand that his or her actions really affect everybody in their surroundings. The offender therefore realizes that the community around him or her disapproves the harm that they have suffered. The state and federal objective is to ensure that punishment entirely be relevant to the offender in regard to the committed crime. It is assumed that the offender goes to the federal prison if he or she commits a federal offense, goes to prison if is sentenced for a year and to the state prison for nearly all other crimes.

When a person appeals to be guilty or the court find him or her to be guilty then the judge decides the suitable sentence that he or she is awarded. Sentencing essentially refers to the action of inflicting a criminal sanction through the use of a judicial authority. It will be realized that in America a lot of offenders appear before judges so that they can be sentenced for their committed crimes. In most cases descriptions for sentencing are basically meant for felony offenses and crimes that are punishable in a period of less than a year of imprisonment. Sentencing guidelines, three strike laws and mandatory minimum sentences usually require specific sentences that nave slight consideration of factors involving the offenders and his or her victims and crimes. The federal and state systems of court have same objectives of punishment and are generally affected as a scheme. The three stroke laws have actually resulted to long term imprisonment of the offenders in both state and federal prisons.  It will further be realized that the use of parole release where parole boards are required has in turn resulted to an increased the prison releases. This has been due to the decision of the parole board by designing the discretionary parole releases.

Mandatory sentences have in turn helped in curbing the offences related drug trafficking, serious violence and use of firearms. On the other hand structured sentencing has actually helped in reducing racial and gender bias, sentencing disparities and in the achievement of truth in policymaking through connecting policies regarding sentencing to policies on corrections spending. Sentencing guidelines also help in reducing disparities and encouraging fairness in the courts’ systems. Truth in sentencing has truly helped in enhancing growth in the rate of states’ incarceration, decline in the rates of admissions and releases from prison and also in increasing the amount of time served by most of the inmates in the prison (McElreath, 2011).

Indeterminate sentencing actually entails setting open lower and upper limits on the total time an offender serves where the early release date is essentially decided by a board of parole. Determinate sentencing on the other hand purely indicates a fixed incarceration term to be served by an offender with a reduction of any good time that might have been earned when in prison (Champion, 2008). Sentencing models extend to include determinate and indeterminate sentencing, truth in sentencing, sentencing, sentencing guidelines and mandatory sentencing. Presumptive sentencing or sentencing guidelines is the most appropriate model because it enhances fairer justice system, decreases the archetypal cruelty of penalties, eliminates procedures for the early release on inmates and also reduces the judge’s discretionary command and the authorities of the parole. To conclude, the examples of presumptive sentencing models extend to include the North Carolina and the United States guidelines (Cromwell, Carmen & Alarid, 2002).






Banks, C. (2005). Punishment in America: a reference handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO.

Champion, D. J. (2008). Sentencing a reference handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO.

Clear, T. R., Cole, G. F., & Dean, R. M. (2013). American corrections (10th [student] ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Cromwell, P. F., Carmen, R. V., & Alarid, L. F. (2002). Community-based corrections (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Thomson Learning.

McElreath, D. (2011). Introduction to corrections. Boca Raton: CRC Press.